Culture Media (Total 299288 Papers Found)

Concerns with the environmental and health risk of widely distributed, commonly used nanoparticles are increasing. Nanosize titanium dioxide (TiO2) is used in air and water remediation and in numerous products designed for direct human use and consumption. Its effectiveness in deactivating pollutants and killing microorganisms relates to photoactivation and the resulting free radical activity. This property, coupled with its multiple potential exposure routes, indicates that nanosize TiO2 could ...
The glycosylation profile of therapeutic antibodies is routinely analyzed throughout development to monitor the impact of process parameters and to ensure consistency, efficacy, and safety for clinical and commercial batches of therapeutic products. In this study, unusually high levels of the mannose-5 (Man5) glycoform were observed during the early development of a therapeutic antibody produced from a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line, model cell line A. Follow up studies indicated that the ...
Various types of feeder cells have been adopted for the culture of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to improve their attachment and provide them with stemness-supporting factors. However, feeder cells differ in their capacity to support the growth of undifferentiated hESCs. Here, we compared the expression and secretion of four well-established regulators of hESC pluripotency and/or differentiation among five lines of human foreskin fibroblasts and primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts throughou ...
Among the three subunits of [beta]-conglycinin, the 7S seed storage protein of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), expression of the [beta] subunit gene is unique. Accumulation of the [beta] subunit is enhanced in sulfate-deficient soybean plants, and its mRNA levels increase when abscisic acid (ABA) is added to the in vitro cotyledon culture medium. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines carrying a gene encoding the [beta] subunit was constructed and grown under sulfate deficiency. Accumulation of ...
To depolymerize plant pectin, the phytopathogenic enterobacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi produces a series of enzymes which include a pectin-methyl-esterase encoded by the pem gene and five isoenzymes of pectate lyases encoded by the five genes pelA, pelB, pelC, pelD, and pelE. We have constructed transcriptional fusions between the pectinase gene promoters and the uidA gene, encoding beta-glucuronidase, to study the regulation of these E. chrysanthemi pectinase genes individually. The transcripti ...
In certain cyanobacteria and algae, cytochrome c553 or plastocyanin can serve to carry electrons from the cytochrome bf complex to photosystem I. The availability of copper in the growth medium regulates which protein is present. To investigate copper induced control of gene expression we isolated these proteins from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803. Using immunodetection and optical spectroscopy, the steady state levels of cytochrome c553 and plastocyanin were measured in cells grown at di ...
p8 is a transcription cofactor whose expression is strongly and rapidly activated in pancreatic acinar cells during the acute phase of pancreatitis. A p8-deficient mouse strain was generated as a tool to investigate its function. Upon induction of acute pancreatitis, myeloperoxidase activity in pancreas and serum concentrations of amylase and lipase were much higher and pancreatic lesions more severe in p8-deficient mice than in wild-type, indicating that p8 expression decreased pancreatic sensi ...
Immature skeletal muscle cells, or myoblasts, have been used in cellular cardiomyoplasty in attempts to regenerate cardiac muscle tissue by injection of cells into damaged myocardium. In some studies, muscle tissue within myoblast implant sites may be morphologically similar to cardiac muscle. We hypothesized that identifiable aspects of the cardiac milieu may contribute to growth and development of implanted myoblasts in vivo. To test this hypothesis, we designed a novel in vitro system to mimi ...
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) produce a protein, glomalin, quantified operationally in soils as glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP). GRSP concentrations in soil can range as high as several mg g soil, and GRSP is highly positively correlated with aggregate water stability. Given that AMF are obligate biotrophs (i.e. depending on host cells for their C supply), it is difficult to explain why apparently large amounts of glomalin would be produced and secreted actively into the soil, since th ...
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has been proposed as a cell surface receptor that binds amyloid-beta protein (Abeta), thereby triggering its cytotoxic effects [S.D. Yan, X. Chen, J. Fu, M. Chen, H. Zhu, A. Roher, T. Slattery, L. Zhao, M. Nagashima, J. Morser, A. Migheli, P. Nawroth, D. Stern, A.M. Schmidt, RAGE and amyloid-beta peptide neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease, Nature 382 (1996) 685-691.]. A cDNA library of human lung was screened for RAGE with an appropriate ...
Lipid peroxidation is one of the main manifestations of oxidative damage and has been found to play an important role in the toxicity and carcinogenicity of many xenobiotics. In the present study, we investigated the possible induction of lipid peroxidation by aluminium in human foreskin fibroblast cultures by assaying the malondialdehyde (MDA) produced inside the cells. The MDA-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) adduct was assayed by HPLC using fluorometric quantification after extraction in n-butanol. ...
Eutypa lata is the causal fungal agent of Eutypa dieback, a serious grapevine necrotic disease. The erratic and delayed (1 to 2 months) appearance of characteristic conidia on culture media and the presence of numerous microorganisms in decaying wood make it difficult either to identify or to detect E. lata in grapevine wood samples. We designed six pairs of PCR primers for diagnosis of E. lata. Three primer pairs were derived from ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences, and three p ...
Alveolar macrophages (AM) were recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage from a group of eight calves at various times before and after inoculation with a cytopathic respiratory isolate of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). A second group of four calves were given tissue culture medium as a control inoculum. Macrophages were also recovered from two additional, uninoculated calves, and were exposed to BVDV in vitro. Tests were carried out on the recovered macrophages to determine the effects of the v ...
The capability of some ligninolytic fungi to degrade lignosulphonates has been studied. Three lignosulphonates concentrations, three culture media and seven different basidiomycetes in solid-cultures have been assayed to select the conditions for further experiments on submerged cultures. The best results of growth and lignosulphonate decolourization in solid-cultures were obtained with Pycnoporus sanguineus, Coriolus pubescens and Trametes sp. I-62 on Kirk's medium and 1% and 2% of lignosulphon ...
Upon starvation for inositol, a phospholipid precursor, an inositol-requiring mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been shown to die if all other conditions are growth supporting. The growth and metabolism of inositol-starved cells has been investigated in order to determine the physiological state leading to "inositolless death". The synthesis of the major inositol-containing phospholipid ceases within 30 min after the removal of inositol from the growth medium. The cells, however, continue ...
The effect of Pb2+ on growth, tetrapyrrole photosynthetic pigment content, total free porphyrin, and 5-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity of a cyanobacterium, Microchaete tenera, and its ability to sequester Pb2+ from the culture medium were studied. Pb2+ was assayed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. M. tenera growth and chlorophyll a content were not affected by 0.5, 1.0, and 6.0 ppm of Pb2+. These treatments doubled the protein content and increased the phycobi ...
Improvement in angiogenesis using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is evolving as an option in patients with vascular insufficiencies. The paracrine factors secreted by MSCs have been attributed to the angiogenic response. This study was conducted to identify the factors secreted by umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UCMSCs) that might play a role in angiogenesis. To this aim, we evaluated the presence of well known proangiogenic factors in the conditioned media (CM) derived from UCMSCs by ELISA. While v ...
The effect of zinc acclimation of Raphidocelis subcapitata (syn. Selenastrum capricornutum) and Chlorella vulgaris on their sensitivity towards this metal was examined in a series of laboratory experiments. These two commonly used algal species were acclimated to 65 microg Zn/l and changes in zinc tolerance were monitored using standard growth inhibition tests. The chemically defined ISO medium was used as a control culture medium. Both species demonstrated a maximum increase in zinc tolerance o ...
Entrapment of mammalian cells in natural or synthetic biomaterials represents an important tool for both basic and applied research in tissue engineering. For instance, the encapsulation procedures allow to physically isolate cells from the surrounding environment, after their transplantation maintaining the normal cellular physiology. The first part of the current paper describes different microencapsulation techniques including bulk emulsion technique, vibrating-nozzle procedure, gas driven mo ...
A biological indicator (BI) measures the effectiveness of the sterilization process to which it is subjected. Factors such as the test organism, the packaging, the culture material, and the test system all influence a BI's resistance. Carrier material is an often-overlooked factor that also influences BI resistance. The authors examine various solid and liquid carriers, describe their properties, and investigate how they influence BI resistance. A biological indicator (BI) is an "inoculated carr ...
Methionine and cysteine are constituents of glutathione. To understand the effects of these two sulfur amino acids on the glutathione (GSH)-dependent detoxification defense system, intracellular GSH and GSH-related enzyme activities, including GSH peroxidase, GSH reductase, GSH S-transferase (GST) and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, were determined. In addition, the expression of three GST isozymes and carbonic anhydrase III (CA III) was examined. Hepatocytes isolated from male Sprague-Dawley ...
The influence of light of varying wavelength on growth and ochratoxin A biosynthesis of Aspergillus carbonarius, A. niger, A. steynii and on Penicillium nordicum and P. verrucosum was analysed. For comparison the influence of light on various other food relevant fungi, including citrinin producers, was also tested. Generally the Aspergilli seem to be more resistant to light treatment than the Penicillia. Interestingly wavelengths from both sides of the spectrum, e. g. red (long wavelength, 627 n ...
The growth and spreading of fibroblast, L929 cells, on various polymeric films prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and casting methods were investigated. L929 cells, which were cultivated on collagen and synthetic polymeric films prepared by the LB method, adhered and spread much more than those on synthetic films prepared by the casting method. This is explained by the fact that cell growth and cell spreading are suitable for L929 cells on the films having serum proteins that contain a high ...
InLygodium japonicum, the archegonium was formed when the prothallium grew to approximately 1.5 mm in width irrespective of age, photoperiod, temperature or concentration of sucrose in the medium. Surgically cut prothallia produced archegonia only when the fragments regenerated to ca. 1 mm in width. Prothallia of smaller dimensions formed antheridia rather than archegonium, but only if archegoniated prothallia of the larger size coexisted in the population. Antheridiogens and inhibitors of arche ...
Introduction: In vitro environments expose developing oocytes to excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are not normally produced in vivo. Melatonin acts as an indirect antioxidant and is a powerful direct free radical scavenger and direct responses to melatonin in the gonads. This study aims to investigate the influence of different doses of melatonin on follicle development and oogenesis of in vitro cultured mouse ovarian follicles. Materials and Methods: Preantral follicles with diameters ...
A novel and unconventional approach to impedance microbiology has been under investigation. In our approach, solution conductivity variations are generated from bacteriophage lyses of infected host cells and the consequent release of conductive endoplasmic material. To sensitively detect the lysis, low conductive growth media have been developed. A microchip has been fabricated to perform the analysis. The microchip is made of two bare gold electrodes and PDMS microchamber of 36 nL volume. Esche ...
In this study, 10 truncated constructs encompassing all or part of the extracellular ligand binding domain of the mGluR3 subtype of metabotropic glutamate receptor were generated, expressed in human embryonic kidney cells, and tested for secretion and binding of the high affinity agonist [(3)H]DCG-IV. The effect of inserting epitope tags into the N or C termini on cell secretion and radioligand binding was also examined. Secretion into the cell culture media was observed for 8 of the 10 truncate ...
Tumor progression has been linked to changes in the stromal environment. Myofibroblasts are stromal cells that are often increased in tumors but their contribution to cancer progression is not well understood. Here, we show that the secretomes of myofibroblasts derived from gastric cancers [cancer-associated myofibroblasts (CAMs)] differ in a functionally significant manner from those derived from adjacent tissue [adjacent tissue myofibroblasts (ATMs)]. CAMs showed increased rates of migration a ...
A psychrotolerant bacterial strain of Serratia marcescens, originally isolated from a glacial site in Indian Himalayan Region (IHR), has been investigated for laccase production under different culture conditions. The bacterial strain was found to grow between 4 to 45°C (opt. 25°C) and 3 to 14 pH (opt. 5 pH) on prescribed growth medium, coinciding with production of laccase in laccase producing medium. However, the production of laccase was more consistent toward alkaline pH. Laccase enzyme wa ...
AIM The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of kisspeptin (KP) on in vitro maturation (IVM) of sheep oocytes aspirated from the ovaries collected from slaughterhouse. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two different experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of KP (5, 10 and 15 µg/ml) alone (experiment 1) or in combination with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and Estradiol (E2) (experiment 2) on IVM of sheep oocytes. Tissue culture medium 199 supplemente ...
Wilson disease is a genetic disorder characterized by the accumulation of copper in the body by defective biliary copper excretion. Wilson disease gene product (ATP7B) functions in copper incorporation to ceruloplasmin (Cp) and biliary copper excretion. However, copper metabolism in hepatocytes has been still unclear. Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a lipid storage disorder and the most commonly mutated gene is NPC1 and its gene product NPC1 is a late endosome protein and regulates intracel ...
Microtus fortis is a naturally resistant vertebrate host of Schistosoma japonicum by preventing completion of parasite's life cycle. Sera of M. fortis were found to have anti-schistosome effect in vitro and in vivo. In order to identify genes associated with the anti-schistosome effect of M. fortis, we screened a M. fortis marrow cDNA expression library by expression cloning and identified a 331-bp clone gC14.75. It was the homologue of heat shock protein 90alpha (HSP90alpha). Full-length of M. ...
In this study, the distribution of oxygen and glucose was evaluated along with consumption by hepatocytes using three different approaches. The methods include (i) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation, (ii) residence time distribution (RTD) analysis using a step-input coupled with segregation model or dispersion model, and (iii) experimentally determined consumption by HepG2 cells in an open-loop. Chitosan-gelatin (CG) scaffolds prepared by freeze-drying and polycaprolactone (PCL) scaff ...
muscle in order to investigate in vivo the metabolic pathway from glycogenin to glycogen and vice versa. We find several intermediates between glycogenin and glycogen containing, we believe, different amounts of carbohydrate but all of them appear to contain one molecular proportion of glycogenin. One of them, of Mr 400 kDa, which we term proglycogen, is a stable intermediate in glycogen synthesis and degradation. It is broken down to glycogenin when cells are treated with ammonium ions or sulfo ...
In short-term primary monolayer cultures of rat hepatocytes, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) causes a characteristic prelethal cytomorphological response in which peripheral attached cytoplasm contracts segmentally to form finger-like blebs. This response precedes lethal injury as detected by release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) into culture medium. We compared the influences of various modifiers of cellular glutathione (GSH) status on cytocidal responses of Fischer 344 rats hepatocytes exposed to AFB1 or ...
1. The interaction between mutualism, facilitation or interference and exploitation competition is of major interest as it may govern species coexistence. However, the interplay of these mechanisms has received little attention. This issue dates back to Gause, who experimentally explored competition using protists as a model [Gause, G.F. (1935) Vérifications expérimentales de la théorie mathématique de la lutte pour la vie. Actualités Scientifiques et Industrielles, 277]. He showed the coex ...
Mouse embryos recovered on the 4th day of pregnancy produced histamine, as evidenced by the 14CO2 produced from carboxy labelled L-histidine, at the rate of 1.5 +/- 0.3 (s.e.m.) pmol/embryo per hour. Most (83.2 +/- 4.6%) of the embryos flushed from the oviducts on Day 3 of pregnancy (4--8-cell stage) developed into blastocysts within 48 h after being placed in culture. Inclusion of L-histidine hydrochloride (4.7 x 10(-4) M) in the culture medium did not alter this development but DL-alpha-methyl ...
To assess the impact of embryonic stem cell culture medium (ESCM) on the pre- and post-implantation development of the mouse embryo, as a mammalian model, in comparison with the conventional culture medium, a potassium simplex optimized medium (KSOM). Development in ESCM versus KSOM was compared in terms of embryo morphology, cleavage, cavitation, hatching, cell number, expression of TE and ICM transcription factors (Cdx2 and Oct4, respectively), implantation, and development in utero. An enrich ...
The expansion of pluripotent cells (ESCs and iPSCs) under conditions that maintain their pluripotency is necessary to implement a cell therapy program. Previously, we have described that low nitric oxide (NO) donor diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide adduct (DETA-NO) added to the culture medium, promote the expansion of these cell types. The molecular mechanisms are not yet known. We present evidences that ESC and iPSCs in normoxia in presence of low NO triggers a similar response to hypoxia, thus m ...
It was recently reported (Endoh et al. 1981, Exp Cell Biol 49:272–277) that conditioned medium of neonatal mouse brain (CM-NB) inhibited the growth of mouse neuroblastoma cells. In this work we fractionated CM-NB by size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography, and separated two active principles (28,000 and 62,000 daltons) Each or a combination of the 28,000 and 62,000 dalton fractions showed a differential inhibitory effect on DNA synthesis or clonal growth of the three human lung c ...
Glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzymes of conventionally and co-cultured adult rat hepatocytes were purified and the GST subunits were separated by reversed phase HPLC in order to study the development of the GST subunit composition as a function of culture time and culture conditions. Several media conditions were tested, namely medium with and without fetal calf serum and with nicotinamide or dimethyl sulphoxide. Compared to the GST subunit composition of freshly isolated hepatocytes, chan ...
Research on early bovine embryonic development in vitro has been done. Oocytes were collected by aspiration technique from slaughter house ovarian and classified based on the number of cumulus cell layers and homogenous of cytoplasm. Maturation media consisted of tissue culture medium (TCM) 199 supplemented with 10 IU/ml pregnant mare’s serum gonadotropin (PMSG), 10 IU/ml human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Maturation were done in 5% CO2 incubator 39 C for ...
We examined the effect of L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (P-Asc) on the proliferation of cultured rabbit keratocytes. P-Asc is a derivative of L-ascorbic acid and it yields more prolonged effects of vitamin C in solution than L-ascorbic acid. The proliferation of cultured rabbit keratocytes was promoted by the presence of P-Asc in culture medium for 10, 20, and 30 days. Transmission electron microscopic observations revealed that the cells were more multilayered in the presence of P-Asc (0.1mM) for ...
During HIV-1 infection, an increase of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) expression, and dendritic cells (DC) dysfunction were often associated with AIDS disease progression. In this work, we investigated the effect of HIV-1 Tat protein on the expression of IDO, in MoDCs. We show that Tat induces IDO protein expression and activity in a dose dependent manner by acting at the cell membrane. Using Tat-mutants, we show that the N-Terminal domain, Tat 1-45, but not the central region, Tat 30-72, is ...
We report here that the leptomeningeal cells transduce inflammatory signals from peripheral macrophages to brain-resident microglia in response to Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) LPS. The expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, TNF-α, and inducible NO synthase was mainly detected in the gingival macrophages of chronic periodontitis patients. In in vitro studies, P.g. LPS induced the secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β from THP-1 human monocyte-like cell line and RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. ...
A desirable feature of many therapeutic glycoprotein production processes is to maximize the final sialic acid content. In this study, the effect of applying a novel chemical analog of the sialic acid precursor N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) on the sialic acid content of cellular proteins and a model recombinant glycoprotein, erythropoietin (EPO), was investigated in CHO-K1 cells. By introducing the 1,3,4-O-Bu3 ManNAc analog at 200-300 µM into cell culture media, the intracellular sialic acid c ...
Primary baboon hepatocytes were cultured in a serum-free medium formulation that permitted the analysis of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a] production by the cells. The hepatocytes were determined to synthesize Lp(a) on the basis of the following observations: (1) the culture medium reacted in an ELISA designed for detection of baboon Lp(a) in serum samples; (2) the Lp(a)-specific protein, apo(a), was detected in the culture medium by immunoblotting techniques; (3) the unique protein structure of Lp(a) was ...
This study determined the specific uptake rate of glucose and corn oil substrates used as carbon sources in batch cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi. We tested three biological models of growth rate: Monod, logistic and lag-exponential. With respect to the substrate consumption rate, we tested two models: constant cell yield (CCY) and law of mass action (LMA). The experimental data obtained from the culture with glucose as substrate correlated satisfactorily with the logistic/LMA model, indicating ...
The viability, enzymatic activity and Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance was compared in pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. To decrease oxygen in the culture medium baseline values and to use various oxidants as protectors were shown to be promising in enhancing the efficiency of cultural diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. ...